Heart Valve Change

What is a Valve Change?

Changing the heart valves is one of the types of operations that aim to preserve the heart and its activity by replacing the damaged valves.

It is a surgical procedure in which one of the damaged heart valves is replaced with a biological or industrial one, and this operation aims to enhance and preserve the work of the heart.

The heart is largely made up of a type of muscle tissue called cardiomyopathy. This muscle contracts when your heart beats, allowing blood to pump through your body.

Cardiac muscle is a special type of muscle tissue that allows the coordinated contractions of the heart muscle.

In which special cells called pacemaker cells control your heart to pump blood as a single functional unit.

Inside the heart there are four chambers called the atria. The atria receive blood from other parts of the body.

The two lower chambers, called ventricles, pump blood to other parts of the body.

The inner part of the heart is where the valves are located, and it is they that work to ensure blood flow and flow in the right direction.

Valve stenosis (hardening), when the valve opening becomes too narrow and not enough blood flows.

Valve regurgitation (valve leakage), when the valve does not close completely and blood flows backward into the heart.

When does a person need heart valve replacement surgery?

When one (or more) valves become narrowed (hardened), the heart must work harder to pump blood through the valve.

Valves can become narrow and stiff from infection (such as rheumatic fever or staph) and ageing.

If one or more valves leaks, blood is leaking backwards, which means less blood is being pumped in the right direction.

Also, based on your symptoms and the general condition of your heart, your doctor may determine which valves are diseased and need surgical repair or
replacement.

Perform excellent cleaning and sterilization of the patient’s chest, then make a longitudinal incision along the breastbone and remove it so that the doctor can access the organs in the rib cage.

Doing what is called cardiopulmonary bypass, and this term means that to ensure a healthy blood circulation, the doctor must connect the body to a device.

Opening the outer cortex of the heart in order to replace the damaged valve and place a new valve and sew it in the place of the old valve.

Ensuring that the new valve is able to pump the same blood that the previous valve was responsible for pumping, and then return the blood flow to the body.

Work to close the pericardium and sew the chest area.

The doctor places displaced tubes so that there is no fluid or blood left from the tissues in the body, then puts a bandage at the site of the operation.

Bleeding occurs.

Leave scars in the surgery area.

The surgical incision was contaminated.

Low blood pressure.

Damage to the major blood vessels in the heart muscle.

Damage to the rest of the heart’s sections.

Unsteadiness and stability of the heartbeat.

Synthetic mechanical valves.

Biological valves.

There are three types of industrial mechanical valves, which are:

Ball valve (ball and cage)

It is made of metal brackets, where the shape of the artificial heart valve is a cage with a ball inside. The ball and cage structure can be manufactured either
from ceramic, steel or titanium. This type is old and not used much, as for its work according to the following steps:

When the blood flows, the ball is pushed forward and the valve opens, but the cage restricts the ball from moving too far.

Likewise, when blood flow decreases, the ball rolls into place to close the valve and prevent reflux.

It consists of two semi-circular discs connected to a solid valve ring through small hinges, and the opening angle of the two layers ranges between 75 to 90
degrees, especially the open valve consists of 3 holes:

A small central opening that resembles a slit between the two open tubes.

Two semi-circular openings larger than the first, two sides.

Autograft valve (self-transplantation), in which the replacement valve is made from another alternative valve inside the patient’s heart, for example, the
pulmonary valve of the same patient can be removed and used to repair the aortic valve, then the donor pulmonary valve is replaced with one of the alternatives options.

Homogeneous graft valve taken from a deceased donor.

Heterotrophic bait valve (mixing valve) of animal origin, such as the heart of a pig or a cow, and using metal or polymer supports.

The tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and the right ventricle.

The pulmonary valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.

The metric valve is located between the left atrium and the left ventricle.

The aortic valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta.

When valves are damaged or diseased and not working the way they should, they need to be repaired or replaced.

The doctor asks to do several comprehensive analyzes of all parts of the body and blood tests.

Discussing the doctor in the person’s medical record, and the person must inform the doctor of any medication he is taking.

The doctor performs a comprehensive electrocardiogram.

Ultrasound of the heart muscle.

Cardiac catheterization of the sick person to check the amount of pressure in the heart valves.

Coming to the operation on an empty stomach (not eating anything before eight hours).

In the first week, the person remains under observation to ensure the success of the operation.

– The installation of a device connected to the heart outside the body to regulate the work of the heart muscle for one week after the operation.

Drink plenty of fluids to stabilize blood pressure.

Giving the person antibiotics to prevent infection.

Prescribing medicines that prevent clotting that occurs in the blood.

This process takes approximately three hours.

This type of valve has the ability to survive for a longer period than the biological type, but it has conditions that suit a specific age group. Its characteristics are
as follows:

It may be associated with a higher long-term risk, for example, the occurrence of blood clots.

Its durability.

After its installation, it requires the use of anticoagulant drugs throughout life, which increases the risk of bleeding and pregnancy problems for patients of childbearing age.

It consists of a single disc and is protected by metal supports on either side or central, and the measurement of the opening angle of the disc fixed to the valve ring ranged from 60 to 80 degrees, thus resulting in two different holes of different sizes.

Made of human or animal tissues, it is replaced after about 10-15 years from the time of its cultivation.

It is also less durable than mechanical valves and more prone to damage. It is used by more people in the older age groups, ranging from 65 to 70 years, and the incidence of blood clots is lower compared to mechanical valves. The patient does not need to take anticoagulants, only in the first months after the
operation.